Historical region of Country
There may be a direct model for them in Alexandria. At the same time or a little later, some buildings appear in Upper Egypt supported by four corner pillars P. Grossmann, Elephantine, II, Mainz 1979, 86ff.. As for their diffusion, they spread out considerably, esp. in the architecture of Nubia, showing outstanding developments there. 2. Monasteries a. Cloisters. Already in the early Christian era two radically different systems of monastic life had developed in Egypt: that of the anchorites, who lived in solitude in the desert, far from human civilization, and that of the cenobites, who lived in community in the cultivated areas. Their monastic buildings, like their ways of life, were radically different. Egyptian anchorites lived as hermits, or in common with a small number of disciples. Consequently, their dwellings were, up to the Arab period, always isolated huts kelli,a, often at a great distance from each other. In the earliest times they were content with caves dug in rock or with empty tombs, furnished inside in a very primitive way for living requirements. In the 5th and 6th c. the kellia were still small, modest dwellings, but already with more than one room, answering only to the most elementary needs of domestic life. Winston-Salem city Map Tourist Attractions The houses of the monastic colony E of Abu Mina W. M¼ller-Wiener – P. Grossmann, Abu Mina IV, 463-468 also comprised a large room in front, for visits and for work, and a small dormitory at the back, also used for recital of daily prayers. Kitchen and toilet were outside. The similar but underground monastic dwelling of Adaima near Isna had a separate oratory S. Sauneron, Les ermitages. But the large, well-developed dwellings Coptic manshubi of the desert, today Wadi’n-Natrun E. White, Monasteries Natr»n III, and of the laura of Kellia F. Daumas – A. Guillaumont, Kellia Kom. 519; R. Kasser, Kellia Top., date at least from the postArab period.