Vienna for intention or behaviour. Behaviour itself may shape attitudes. This highlights the need for prospective longitudinal studies that examine the changing relationships between variables over time and enable the disentangling of cause?effect relationships. n Armitage and Connor found that the intention to eat or not eat a low-fat diet could be distinguished on the basis of more positive attitudes towards a low-fat diet higher outcome expectancies and value. However, the subsequent intervention targeting attitudes had a limited effect on actual dietary behaviour, suggesting that translating predictors identified in correlational designs into targets for successful intervention is not straightforward Michie et al n The prediction of behaviour from the TPB variables is significantly lower than the prediction of intention, providing strong evidence for the need to identify further variables that move an individual from intention to action. Other factors which have emerged include affective emotional variables and those that relate to planning processes involved in the initiation of action following intention formation n Moral norms’ rather than a behaviour being influenced by subjective social norms as in the TPB, it has been recognised that some intentions and behaviour may be partially motivated by moral norms, particularly behaviours that directly involve others such as condom use or drink driving e.g. Vienna 2016.

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