VI. Archaeology

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VI. Archaeology Introduction. Excavations since 1932 by Princeton University have brought to light the extent and importance of the monuments of Antioch, a center of artistic activity. The Roman conquest, following Greek rule, coincided with the city’s architectural development, which continued into the Christian era but ceased, along with the Christian civilization itself, with the Muslim invasion of 637. Antioch measured 7 by 6 km 4.3 by 3.7 mi. “A city splendid and eminent for its public works” Expositio 158, it has been called the Paris of the East for its beauty, and the Vienna of the 4th c. for its composite culture. An imperial see several times, it was one of the two poles, with Edessa, of the Roman strategic system, and a meeting place of commercial routes. Lacking wood, the only construction material was stone basalt; thus lacking beams and lintels, arches counterbalanced by external buttresses were used to sustain the stone ceiling slabs. Christian church buildings. 1. Urban. The “Great Church,” a sumptuous octagon set in large grounds in the new city, on the island in the Orontes near the imperial palace Eus., Vita Const. III, 50, is attested by a floor mosaic 5th c. discovered at Yakto Daphne in 1932 in Antioch on the Orontes I, 114- 128. It was built on two levels, with splendid interior Eus., De laud. Const.: PG 20, 1109, gilded flooring, and cupola and inlaid walls Theophane, Chronogr.: PG 108, 111. It was dedicated to Christ 341 with an altar facing W sic! Socr., HE V, 22; PG 67, 642. The “Old Church,” or Palaia, was in the old city near other churches, such as those of the Theotokos built by Justinian; St. Peter; St. Stephen; Sts. Cosmas and Damian; St. Thecla; the Holy Maccabees; St. Barlaam; St. Romanus; St. Leontius; St. Simeon; and the church where Paulinus officiated in the time of bishop Meletius Socr., HE III, 9; PG 7, 404. 2. Extraurban. Church of St. Babylas, indentified by Lassus at Kaoussié near the Orontes, cruciform with four equal arms 25 x 11 m, continuations of a central area 16 m square: Bishop Meletius had it built in 381 and Babylas’s relics, already brought by Julian to the cemetery of Antioch when they had silenced the oracle of Daphne, were placed there; Bishop Meletius was buried in the same sarcophagus Chrys., De S. Babyla: PG 50, 544. The floor was ornamented by Bishop Flavian 387. Other churches were: St. Julian martyr; St. John, with baptistery, in the vicus Tiberinus; St. Martha; St. Michael; St. Paul Outside the Gates, discovered in 1936, with three naves, mosaic floor and narthex D. Levi, Antioch Mosaic, 368; St. Simeon Stylites late 5th c. on the Aleppo Road see W. Eltester, Die Kirchen Antiochias, 251-286; J. Lassus, Sanctuaires, passim. Cemeterial monuments, though amply documented in texts, have few remains. The calendar of martyrial feasts can be reconstructed from the Syriac martyrology 411 and the Mart. hier. We know one extraurban cemetery, on the Daphne road, with relics of many martyrs Chrys., In coem. appl.: PG 49, 393; 541, including Ignatius, Bishop Babylas, Juventinus and Maximinus Chrys., In Juv. et Maxim: PG 50, 571, and the virgin Drosis Id., De Dros.: PG 50, 685. In a second cemetery outside the Porta Romanesia, Bishop Meletius had the bodies of the martyrs translated into a monument Chrys., In Ascens. I: PG 50, 442. Beyond St. Paul’s Gate many Christian tombs covered with mosaics have been discovered, facing a 5th c. church. There were also hospitals, hospices and monasteries. Artistic monuments. 1. Introduction. Antioch, birthplace of the Syro-Palestinian artistic style, was the cultural capital of Asia Minor. Decorative motifs of Antioch’s mosaic floors recur in various miniatures, a sign of the influence of the Antiochene scriptoria. Antiochene influence is not improbable in the mosaics and inlays of the Orthodox baptistery at Ravenna C.R. Morey. Excessive ornamentation, tending toward polychromy using drills and a variety of materials, makes some scholars e.g., C. Cecchelli see Antiochene influence on the capitals of St. Mark’s Venice, stolen by the Venetians from overseas. 2. Mosaics. The border of a splendid mosaic, with a symbolic bust of Megalopsychia in the center and forming part of the “Yakto complex,” depicts buildings whose captions identify them as those of Daphne, including the “private bath” of Ardaburius, magister militum at Antioch in 459 at the time of the anxious translation of the body of St. Simeon Stylites into the city Evagr., HE I, 13. We can make out the two springs of Pallas and Castalia, a semicircular nymphaeum, the Olympic stadium, the ergasterion of the martyrium, private houses near the “promenade,” booths, rectangular houses of one or two floors in late Syrian style and scenes of daily life. One of the buildings can perhaps be identified with one of the early Christian three-aisled basilicas H.C. Butler, Early Churches, 58, fig. 55. The transition from Late Antique to Early Medieval is attested by motifs of geometrical decoration, pagan or otherwise, with an abundance of allegorical scenes, floors as if carpeted, interspersed with Persian motifs ribbons or goats’ heads. Of two mosaics decorated like carpets of rose petals, one has “a border of vine-shoots with birds, animals and grape-clusters, and, in the center of one long side, we note two superb peacocks flanking a basket of grapes, a decoration favored by a great many early Christian churches” D. Levi, Antiochia, 427. The many mosaics attest the superstitions, religion, literary and philosophical tastes, and daily life of the Antiochenes, but almost exclusively that of the pagan, not the Christian, city. 3. Sculpture. A few sculptures and products of the minor arts, esp. silver, allow us to evaluate Antiochene sculpture. As for the famous “Antioch Chalice,” adorned, like so much sculpture of the first Byzantine golden age, with embossed decoration, discovered in 1910 and now in New York, both its Antiochene provenance and its date are disputed from AD 5070 to the 6th c., for de Jerphanion. The mosaic discovered at Habr Hiram is part of the same artistic tendency. Christian epigraphy. A mosaic in the N aisle of the cruciform church of Kaoussié records Bishop Flavian of Antioch, who consecrated John Chrysostom to the priesthoood in 386 and, in the revolt against the imperial statutes, hastened to beg Theodosius I to spare the city L. Jalabert – R. Mouterde, Inscriptions III1, n. 774. We possess the dedicatory inscription on the door of Constantine’s Great Church, the golden church depicted on the Yakto mosaic ibid., n. 998. 1. Greetings. “Christ be with us” ibid., n. 877. On a portico at Refâdi: “Lord ku,@rie# bless our coming in ei;sodon and our going out e;xodon. Amen” 13 VIII510 in H. Leclercq, Antioche, 2404. 2. Professions of faith. On the road to Daphne a keystone of white marble reads on the lower side: “One God ei-j qeo,j and his Christ o` cristo,j ” L. Jalabert, III1, n. 991; cf. ibid., nn. 810, 814, 815, 869, 985, 991, 1030, 1078. At Kôkanâya, the inscription 368369 on the arcosolium of Eusebius, one of two in a hypogeum, reads, “+ To Eusebius, + Christian +  Glory Do,xa to the Father patri, and to the Son ui`w| and to the Holy Spirit a`gi,w| pneu,mati” ibid., II, n. 598; see also Jalabert, II, nn. 595-597. A Refâdi 439: “VIhsouj cristo.j qeou ui`o.j swth,r Jesus Christ God’s Son Savior,” the same at Khirbet Hâss no date, on both door-lintels of an ancient house in H. Leclercq, loc. cit.. In the same place 516: “Jesus VIhsouj the Nazarene, born of Mary evk Mari,aj gennhqei,j, Son of God o` ui`o.j tou qeou” ibid., loc. cit.; and on the lintel of a small house: “Jesus Christ God’s Son Savior ivcqu,j is the beginning avrch, of the new creation tou neoktistou ” Jalabert, II, n. 425. 3. Profession of faiths invocations. On the village of Qâtoûra 331: “Jesus Christ VIhsou Criste,, have mercy boh,qei,  there is but one God Ei-j Qeo.j mo,noj” Jalabert, II, n. 443. E of Antioch, on a door-lintel, the “trisagion”: “{Agioj o` Qeo.j agioj ivscuro.j agioj avqa,natoj     eleu,son h`haj”; after avqa,natoj are the theopaschite words stau- roqei.j diV h`haj “crucified for us,” added by the monophysite bishop of Antioch Peter the Fuller, ca. 470 in H. Leclercq, Antioche, 2403. H. Leclercq, Antioche archéologie, DACL 12 1907 2359- 2427; H.C. Butler, Early Churches of Syria, Princeton 1925; W. Eltester, Die Kirchen Antiochias im IV Jahrhundert: ZNTW 36 1937 251-286; J. Lassus, L’église cruciforme-Antioche-Kaoussié: Antioch-on-the-Orontes II, Princeton 1938, 5-44; J. Lassus, Le mosaïque de Yakto: Antioch-on-the-Orontes I-III, Princeton 1934-1941; D. Levi, Antioch Mosaic Pavements, 2 vols., Princeton 1947; J. Lassus, Sanctuaires chrétiens de Syrie, Paris 1947; E. Josi, Antiochia di Siria: EC 1 1948 1456-1460; D. Levi, Antiochia: EAA I, Rome 1958, 426-428; P. Testini, Archeologia cristiana, Rome 1958, 515, 718-723; L. Jalabert – R. Mouterde, Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie I-V, Paris 1929-1959; R. Martin, Commentaire archéologique de l’Antiochikos, in A.J. Festugière, Antioche païenne et chrétienne  , Paris 1959, 38- 61; G. Traversari, Gli spettacoli in acqua nel teatro tardo antico, Rome 1960; J. Rougé ed., Expositio totius mundi et gentium, SC 124, Paris 1966; P.-M.T. Canivet, I complessi cristiani del IV e del V secolo a Huarte N Syria: RivAC 56 1980 147-172; M. Piccirillo, Note di viaggio in alta Siria nei villaggi di Zubbet Es-Shih e Hawwa: RivAC 57 1981 113-125; G. Degeorge, Syrie. Art, Histoire, Architecture, Paris 1983; H.J.W. Drÿvers, East of Antiochia: Studies in Early Syriac Christianity, London 1984; Id., History and Religion in Late Syria, Aldershot 1994; P. Donceel-Voute, Les pavements des églises byzantines de Syrie et du Liban. Décor, archéologie et liturgie, Louvain 1988; J.H.G.W. Liebschütz, From Diocletian to the Arab Conquest, London 1990; A. Naccache, Le décor des églises de villages d’Antiochène du IVe  au VIIe , Paris 1992; G. Tchalenko, Églises de village de la Syrie du Nord, 3 vols., Paris 1979-1990; B. Pouderon, La genesi dell’arte cristiana: Storia del Cristianesimo 1, 819-823 821: Syria.Roman Legionary Camp Uncovered in Israel | Archaeology | Sci-News.com holidaymapq


VI. Archaeology

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VI. Archaeology

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VI. Archaeology

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