Tour africa for Ann M. Carlos and Stephen Nichols, Giants of an Earlier Capitalism: The Early Chartered Trading Companies as Modern Multi-nationals, Business History Review (v.62, 1988); Andrew Dalby, Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices (University of California Press, 2000); S.R.H. Jones and Simon P. Ville, Efficient Transactors or Rent-seeking Monopolists? The Rationale for Early Chartered Trading Companies, Journal of Economic History (v. Tour africa 2016.
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Babies as young as three months become distressed if these expectations are not met. When, for instance, a parent of a three-month-old adopts a still, impassive facial The Newborn expression, the baby responds negatively and often tries to elicit the anticipated reaction by smiling or vocalizing. If this does not work, the baby turns away. These interactions as social partners create mutual understanding and a shared state of meaning termed intersubjectivity. In the state of shared meaning, the baby uses the parent as a social reference for responding to experience.