Top vacation destinations in us for Other factors more closely define the relationship of the spice trade to the growth of capitalism, especially the founding and development of joint-stock companies like the Dutch East India and its English counterpart, which provided an initial forum for capital investment, accumulation and reinvestment, and also funded further exploration of territories unknown to Europeans via private-sector investment. Several scholars have suggested that the early jointstock companies were the predecessors of present-day, multi-national corporations, though others emphasize the economically conservative nature of their activities. Nowhere did the spice trade move more obviously in tandem with European trends than in the area of its relationship to MERCANTILISM, the leading economic phi- 784 spice trade The spice trade, dominated by Portugal, Venice, England, and Holland, included pepper, cinnamon, and cloves. losophy of the early modern world, where the fortunes of the spice trade mark the highs and lows of the fortunes of this idea. The Portuguese search for spices was fueled by the same mercantilist dictate that heated the European search for colonies, the idea that imported products should not be purchased from competitors but only be consumed if they could be drawn directly from one’s own colonies. At the same time, popular demand for spices and interest in consuming foreign imports from other countries demonstrated the inability of national governments to control the developing world market; thus demand for consumption of spices played an important role in demonstrating the need for a shift from mercantilist to capitalist political economies in the early modern period. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Top vacation destinations in us 2016.