Top destinations in america for Spices were thought to ease digestion and enhance fertility. The assumption that the Portuguese sought independent direct access to spice markets in the East because of drastically rising prices for spices in Italy, due to the Venetian monopoly, has not been supported by recent research, which suggests that prices for pepper in particular (the spice most desired by Europeans) had been falling in the late 15th century, in line with the general decline of the Venetian economy. In fact, the Portuguese entry into the spice market seems to have raised spice prices, since their penetration into the Indian Ocean after 1498 increased the costs of regional producers in protecting their wares from seizure, and exacerbated the problem of unregulated spice traffic. While Portuguese spice distribution initially triumphed over that of Venice, Venetian trade recovered somewhat in the short term, for at least initially, Portuguese spices were found by contemporaries to lack the potency of their Venetian competition (either because they came from different species, or because of the rigors of the ocean voyage). The Dutch and English quickly joined the Portuguese and Venetians, increasing both competition and the size of the markets they supplied. By the 1520s, however, the Venetian spice trade was practically defunct. The creation of the Dutch East India Company ultimately gave the Dutch a near monopoly over the trade in fine spices and a heavy portion of the market for black pepper, a condition achieved not only by Dutch influence on European markets, but also due to the company’s success in controlling production of spices in its colonies, influencing commodity prices by stockpiling product in years of high production, ending the Silk Road trade, and disrupting native trade arrangements spice trade 783 for spices in the East, replacing them with Dutch ships. Top destinations in america 2016.