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Sismondi, Jean Charles Leonard Simonde de (1773-1842). A Swiss historian and economist, who after a period in exile in England began lecturing at Geneva Academy in 1809 on history and economics. His economic works include Richesse Commerciale (1803), Nouveaux Principes d’economie politique (1819) and Etudes sur Veconomie politique (1837). Sismondi argued against the doctrine of laissez-faire in favour of state intervention. He recommended unemployment and sickness benefits, and pension schemes for workers. With t. r. malthus, he attacked d. ricardo for not recognizing the possibility of economic crisis developing from underconsumption. He tried to emphasize the dynamic nature of the economic process, compared with the comparative statics of Ricardo (O comparative static equilibrium analysis), and was the first to use sequence analysis as an analytical device. Increased output in one period, he argued, is faced with a level of income generated by a lower level of output in the previous period. Total demand falls short of the available supply. Lags in the economic system, therefore, could give rise to underconsumption.
Size distribution of firms. A description of the size pattern of firms in an industry or economy. It is constructed by choosing some suitable measurement of size (total sales, number employed, net assets, etc.) and then establishing size classes, e.g.:
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