Tokyo for Implementation intentions have been shown to increase a person’s commitment to their decision and the likelihood of their attaining a specified goal by carrying out the intended action. For example, Orbell et al. assessed the attitudes, social norms and intentions of women to perform breast selfexamination and then instructed half of the sample to form an II as to when and where they would carry it out. This half of the sample showed a significantly higher rate of subsequent self-examination than the sample that had not formed an II. Commonly reported barriers to attaining goals or implementing intended behaviour, such as forgetting or being distracted from it, can be overcome by committing the individual to a specific course of action when the environmental conditions specified in their II are encountered Rutter and Quine Illustrating this, Gollwitzer and Brandst?tter describe how an II creates a mental link between the specified situation e.g. next Monday and the behaviour e. Tokyo 2016.