The English Duke of York assumed power over New Amsterdam and the colony of New Netherland in 1664, renaming the colony New York. During the first thirty years of English rule, New York City entered a new phase of development, marking the end of a strong Dutch influence. Although Dutch merchants managed to retain power over the settlement’s economic affairs in 1677, English and French merchants were in control of New York’s economic affairs by 1703. Some Dutchmen still retained their positions of wealth during the early English period; however, Dutch people of the middling rank saw their opportunities for socioeconomic advancement quashed.
While the French began arriving in large number in the 1680s and had established a cultural base by founding the ‰glise Fran§oise la Nouvelle York in 1688, English immigration in the 1680s had slowed. The English did not form a church of their own until 1697, when they established Anglican Trinity Church (although another English group, the Quakers, had organized a small number of meetings by this time). It took longer for the English to form a culturally cohesive group because of strife between Crown officials and English settlers in the colony. In addition, unlike the Dutch and French populations, the English population included a greater variety of religious groups.
The years 1689 to 1691 mark a significant turning point in the history of New York City. After the fall of Charles II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Jacob Leisler assumed power in the city, primarily representing a group of Dutch residents. In many ways, the rebellion of New York City residents was a response to the loss of Dutch power after the English takeover of New Amsterdam.
Leisler was able to gain the support of many of these Dutch by promising that William of Orange’s ascension to the English throne would force the English to give up New York. Leisler, however, was removed from power in 1691 by the new monarchs, William and Mary. This event marked the defeat of New York’s Dutch and reflected the final loss of strong Dutch political influence in the colony.