CANON, MURATORIAN Muratorian Fragment. The Muratorian Canon is the oldest list of the sacred books of the NT; it is not known whether the list of NT books was preceded by a list of the canonical books of the OT. The Muratorian Canon is named for the Italian scientist L.A. Muratori d. 1750, who discovered it in an 8th- c. manuscript of Milan’s Biblioteca Ambrosiana and published it in 1740. It includes 85 lines; the beginning is lost, and it begins with the last sentences on the gospel of St. Mark, followed by the gospel of St. Luke and the books of the NT, except Heb, Jas, 2 Pet and 3 Jn. Syria Metro Map It lists two Apocalypses: of John and of Peter; some did not want the latter read in church. The Book of Wisdom according to the author was written by Solomon’s friends; the Shepherd, a very useful book, cannot be read officially in the church. It mentions the Letters to the Laodiceans and to the Alexandrians as Marcionite works. It rejects the works of Valentinus of Arsinoe, Miltiades, Basilides Asiatic founder of the Cataphrygians and the authors of the Book of Psalms of Marcion the last lines, containing this information, are difficult to understand. The text comes from an unknown author and was written probably at Rome in the 2nd half of the 2nd c.: he speaks of Pope Pius ca. 142 155 as a contemporary, but the date remains disputed. It is possible that the original was written in Greek. The Muratorian Canon is the first list of the texts of the Bible and is one of the most important texts for the history of the NT canon. Zahn 1-143; H. Lietzmann, Das muratorische Fragment, Bonn 1933; Enchiridion Biblicum nr. 1. G. Bardy, DBS 5, 1957, 1394- 1408; TRE 6, 22-48; Ger. tr.: Schneemelcher 1, 27f.; B.M. Metzger, Il canone del NT, Brescia 1997, 169-178; T. Zahn, Hippolytus, der Verfasser des muratorisches Kanon: NeuKirchlZeit 33 1922 417-436; G.M. Hanemann, The Muratorian Fragment and the Developement of the Canon, Oxford 1992; J.P. Henne, La datation du Canon de Muratori: RBen 100 1993 54-75; J.D. Kaestli, La datation du Canon de Muratori: Cristianesimo in the storia 15 1994 609-634; V. Verheyden, The Canon Muratori: A Matter of Dispute, in The Biblical Canons, J.-M. Auwers, H.J. De Jonge eds., Louvain 2003, 487-556.
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