Sydney for g. starting a diet. It seems likely that IIs obtain their effects by making action more automatic, i.e. in response to a situational stimuli set down in the II, and in this way enable the person to overcome the when will I do this?’ type of procrastination that stops many intentions being put into action. Gollwitzer also notes that while forming proximal more immediate goals leads to better goal attainment than forming distal long-term goals, IIs do show persistence over time. For example, forming an II to take vitamin pills persisted over a three-week period in Sheeran and Orbell’s study. Sydney 2016.