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The theme of creation, so important in the Jewish liturgy and so clear in the Apos. Con., is almost avoided here. The prayer, which, like the Roman creed, centers on the work of Christ, St. Louis Metro Map introduces the account of institution, the thanksgiving in the form of anamnesis, and finally the epiclesis to the Holy Spirit. This can be compared with the Clementine liturgy of the Apos. Con., whose Jewish inspiration and roots are evident, and which is an essential link between the archaic liturgies and the great liturgies of the 4th and 5th c. The attribution to Clement has a Jewish Christian feel. The anaphora develops the history of salvation: praise of God, creation of the world, creation of humans, salvation history; all these prepare for the Sanctus.
The account of institution is followed by an anamnesis, an epiclesis and intercession for the church. Hamman has demonstrated in Kyriakon 835-843 the perfect symmetry between the anaphora and the baptismal catechesis Apos. Con. VII,39,2-5. The prayer opens on the mystery of the Trinity, St. Louis Metro Map which is revealed in the economy, creation and history of salvation, up to its fulfillment. This solemn prayer begins with the Father, moves to the work of the Son, passes on to the ecclesial action of the Holy Spirit and closes with a doxology. Baptismal confession become consecratory thanksgiving, it is faith made into a sacramental mystery and a sacrament of the whole faith.
The golden age of patristics 4th-5th c. was the era of the great liturgies, in both East and West. Different liturgical families arose during this period, developing autonomously at Antioch, Alexandria, in Cappadocia, and at Constantinople. The various churches gradually fixed their own liturgies: each had several formularies of anaphora. St. Louis Metro Map The East introduced the Sanctus in the 4th c. Serapion, Eucol.; Apos. Con.. The Syriac liturgy and the Byzantine, which derives from it stressed the epiclesis to the Holy Spirit. The epiclesis and the prayers of intercession exchanged places according to liturgical families. The West tended to lose sight of the connection between the preface and the canon, which, as the word implies, was set once and for all.
Ambrose cites a fragment of it De sacr. III,1,5; Gregory the Great gave it its definitive form. It seems to have been gradually imposed on the whole West during the Carolingian Empire. Catechesis more than controversy which was virtually nonexistent informs us of the sacramental teaching of the Fathers, who insist on Christ’s real presence in the Eucharist, on the reality of his sacrifice, actualized in the church’s celebration, and on the unity of the faithful with Christ and among themselves in the Eucharist. They also recall the close connection between the word of God and the body of Christ: Caesarius of Arles, echoing St. Augustine, says that the Word of Christ is not less than the Body of Christ Sermo 78,2; St. Ambrose had already proclaimed that one drinks of Christ from the chalice of the Scriptures as from the eucharistic chalice En. Ps 1,33. We have exceptional evidence of the various Greek and Latin Fathers. The catechesis of the Mass was based on biblical figures and rites.
The Hexateuch provided the principal types: Melchizedek see Cyprian, Ambrose Augustine, Roman canon and the manna, which St. John had already used. Methodius, like Ambrose, brings together three figures: Adam’s rib, the rock in the desert, Christ’s wound on the cross. To these is added the bread of the Presence Cyril of Jerusalem, Cat. 24,6. To this common background were added the blessing of Judah Cyprian, which Justin and Irenaeus apply to Christ’s passion; Noah’s drunkenness, which prefigures sobria ebrietas Cyprian; the Passover lamb, which represents the passion more than the Eucharist exceptions: Cyprian, Commodian, Gregory of Elvira. We should also mention the psalms, esp. Ps 53. Ps 42 is presented as a eucharistic catechesis Gregory of Nyssa. The nuptial image drawn by Ambrose from the Song of Songs allowed the development of a theology of teleiosis and ecstasy. Maximus the Confessor develops a theology of the spiritual life, from Christian initiation to perfection. Besides biblical figures, the Fathers also explain the various rites of the Mass, from preparation to communion and thanksgiving Cyril of Jerusalem, Cat. myst.. They emphasize the continuity between the liturgy of the word and the liturgy of the bread. For them, the Eucharist is the sacramentum redemptionis, the sacrament that contains and dispenses all of Christ’s redemptive and saving action, from his death to his resurrection.
The Antiochenes, like Theodore of Mopsuestia, less sensitive to biblical typology, see in it above all the figures of heavenly goods and delights: the eschatological aspect, traditional since the Didache and Serapion’s Euchologion 13. John Chrysostom and Augustine love to develop the ecclesial aspect: It is your mystery that is placed on the Lord’s altar. It is your mystery that you receive. To that which you are, you reply: Amen Aug., Serm. 272. St. Gregory the Great, who read and commented on Sacred Scripture with passion and enthusiasm, says of himself that often, reading and rereading a text, he was unable to grasp its meaning, but putting it before the brothers, I understood it In Ez. lib. II, hom. II,1.