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A step in this process of institutionalization was the prohibition of digamy, i.e., of a new marriage after widowhood. In accord with 1 Tim 3:2, 3:12 and Tit 1:6, a widowed member of the clergy could not remarry, and a remarried person could not be ordained. San Diego Map If we may believe the criticisms directed in the Philosophumena 9,12,22 against Pope Callistus, this rule was not always observed. From the 4th c. many councils reaffirm it, sometimes extending it to subdeacons and even to lower clergy, as well as to women, who must be virgins when they marry members of the clergy. The Council of Valence of 374 considers as remarried those who married for the first time as pagans; the 17th apostolic canon Apos. con. 8,47,17, rather, takes into account only those marriages contracted after baptism. Jerome Letter 69,9 speaks of a bishop, already married as a pagan and remarried after baptism, and adds, doubtless exaggerating, that the world is full of bishops in similar situations. Not all agreed with this line of conduct, however: according to Theodore of Mopsuestia and Theodoret of Cyrrhus in their exegesis of 1 Tim 3:2 and Tit 1:6, the apostle did not forbid a second marriage to members of the clergy but asked them to be examples of fidelity to their spouses; we know that in Syria in the 4th c. there were remarried bishops.

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