Pretoria Map on The whole point is to produce goods and services for sale at a price that will both recover the expenses laid out by the firm (for labor and all the non-human materials) and leave enough for a profit. But where can this profit be generated if all commodities are exchanged at equal value? Marx answered this question with his theory of SURPLUS value. The key was to consider the ability to work, what he called labor-power, as a commodity. Even though this ability to workwhich is embodied in workersis not produced by firms, it is bought and sold on the (labor) market, and so becomes a commodity like all other commodities. Its value is determined, as for all commodities, by the labor necessary to produce it, or in this case, the labor necessary to reproduce the worker. Marx writes: For his maintenance [the worker] requires a given quantity of the means of subsistence . . Pretoria Map 2016.
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