Prague for The model therefore allows for recycling’ from one stage to another and is sometimes referred to as a spiral’ model e.g. Prochaska et al The first two stages are generally considered to be defined by intention or motivation; the preparation stage combines intentional and behavioural volitional criteria, whereas the action and maintenance stages are purely behavioural Prochaska and Marcus To help to understand factors that influence progression through the stages, the model outlines the psychological processes that are considered to be at play in the different stages with some being important in more than one stage. These processes include the covert or overt activities that people engage in to help them to progress for example, seeking social support and avoiding settings that trigger’ the behaviour, as well as more experiential’ processes that individuals may go through emotionally and cognitively, such as self re-evaluation or consciousness raising. These and other processes are the targets of intervention efforts to move’ individuals through the stages towards effective and maintained behaviour change for example, motivation-enhancing interventions or self-efficacy training see Chapter n In the pre-contemplation stage, individuals are more likely to be using denial and/or may report lower self-efficacy to change beliefs and more barriers to change. n In the contemplation stage, people are more likely to seek information and may report reduced barriers to change and increased benefits, although they may still underestimate their susceptibility to the health threat concerned. n In the preparation stage, people start to set their goals and priorities, and some will make concrete plans similar to implementation intentions as described in an earlier section and small changes in behaviour e. Prague 2016.

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