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Among the apologists, Justin Martyr maintains, like Ignatius, that the Christians lack no charism and that the profhtika. cari,smata have been transferred from the Jews to the Christians Dial. 82,1; a little further on he observes that even today it is possible to see among us women and men who possess charisms of the Holy Spirit Dial. 88,1. Irenaeus develops the theme of charisms, esp. in polemic against gnostics and Montanists. The use of charisms by the gnostics was contested both because it did not occur according to the methods admitted by orthodoxy Adv. haer. I, 13,4; II, 31,2, Pittsburgh Map and because gnostics derived their powers not from God but from magic arts. Similarly he refutes the Montanists because they considered themselves the exclusive trustees of the charism of prophecy and exercised it outside the church Adv. haer. III, 11,9. Irenaeus also seems to consider the charisma veritatis, which the church has received from the apostles and handed on to their successors, as a gift of God, whose recipients can be recognized by their exemplary and spotless life as earlier in the Didache and in Hermas’s Shepherd. Apollonius a contemporary of Montanus, cited by Eusebius of Caesarea HE V, 18,1-14 maintained the falsity of the Montanist prophecies, not because he doubted the existence of this charism, but because they exercised it in untraditional ways i.e., reveling in ecstasy or accepting cash rewards, as the anonymous author cited by Eusebius, HE V, 16,7, maintains. In short, the 2nd-c. Fathers attest to the belief in the presence of charisms in the church of their time see also Tertull., Apol. 23; Ad Scapul. I, 2-4; Exhort. Cast. 4 but, under the inducement of antiheretical polemic, they seek to establish the limits and conditions on the basis of which orthodox charisms may be distinguished from those claimed by heretics. Later, reflection on charisms developed in several main directions: 1 Charisms esp. those in the first category mentioned above came to be seen more and more as a privilegium ecclesiae primitivae. Origen, e.g., while maintaining against the Jews the persistence of miracles among the Christians C. Cel. II, 8, also maintains that the signs of the Spirit, numerous in Jesus’ time and after his ascension, seem to have become less frequent later C. Cel. VII, 8. Gregory of Nazianzus In Iob XXIV, 2 expresses doubts on the existence of charisms in the church of his time. For John Chrysostom In Inscrip. Actuum Apost. 2: PG 51, col. 80 and then Gregory the Great Hom. XXIX, 4: PL 76, col. 1215, these manifestations of the Spirit belong to the apostolic church, but with the spread and success of Christianity they had exhausted their function. 2 The charisms whose existence continued to be admitted were those relating to service, possessed by persons belonging to the ecclesiastical hierarchy. 3 Where charisms were not identified solely with service and its distinct functions, there was a tendency to see monasticism with particular reference to the virtutes of the viri Dei as the privileged locus of their manifestation. A place apart in the conceptual elaboration of charisms belongs to John Chrysostom, who does not consider charisms an exclusive privilege of the ecclesiastical hierarchy or of monasticism, maintaining esp.

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