Philadelphia for g. joining a gym. Some may be setting unrealistic goals for success, or underestimating their own ability to succeed. Motivation and self-efficacy are crucial if action is to be elicited. n In the action stage, realistic goal setting is crucial if action is to be maintained. The use of social support is important in order to receive reinforcement that will help to maintain the lifestyle change. n Many individuals, for example up to per cent of smokers who quit Oldenburg et al. Philadelphia 2016.