Period table period for Another example of the misuse of classic koan literature in the modern world has been the involvement of Zen and other schools of Buddhism in the problems of social discrimination in Japan. Japanese society has long had a community of marginalized people known today as the Burakumin, who have been treated as secondclass citizens and relegated to menial labor paying a meager income. Th e history of discrimination, offi cially outlawed as long ago as the 1870s, is long and complex, but one issue that came to light over the past few de cades concerns the role of funerals. During Buddhist burial rites, which almost all Japa nese, including outcasts, undergo, the deceased is assigned a posthumous ordination name, making him, in eff ect, a Buddha before his send- off into the next world. When this practice is dispensed to Burakumin corpses, they are given names that are deliberately designed to reveal their lowly social status in a kind of coding in which the label beast is surreptitiously inscribed. Th is ritual still requires a substantial donation from the deceased’s family, even as the problematic names are engraved on the tombstones. An additional area of ugliness in modern Zen revolves around accusations of sexual abuse, especially by Asian- born masters administering koan exercises to eager American followers. Period table period 2016.