Mumbai metro map for Even more so, different consumers may perceive different characteristics even if they choose between identical goods. Much of the economic literature has suffered from such ontological equivocation between objective features of products and their subjective differentiation and monetary estimation by consumers: Commodities are differentiated partly by their very nature (without re- 672 product j ·= = n j j YN P Q 1 , j = 1, 2, , n gard to demand), and partly in response to differences in buyers’ tastes, preferences, locations, etc., which are as much a part of the order of things within any broad class of product as they are between one class of product and another, Chamberlin explains. Second, not only are consumers unlikely to have similar marginal rates of substitution between properties, products are also not reducible to simple sets of characteristics independent of each other. Contrary to the characteristics approach, which expresses higher consumer valuation of particular properties strictly as higher willingness to pay, complex products may have interdependent characteristics. Some products may be such, as in the case of shoes without soles or computers without processors, that our willingness to pay for any other characteristic is reduced to zero if one characteristic is found missing or defective. By assuming an atomistic structure of products, the characteristics approach makes unrealistic assumptions. Mumbai metro map 2016.