Moscow for For example, Segan et al. examined the changes in specific behavioural and experiential processes, self-efficacy and decisional balance among a sample of individuals who were preparing to stop smoking and making the transition to the action stage. Results suggested that some changes in TTM components resulted from the transition to action, rather than preceded it for example, increases in situational confidence and counter-conditioning where positive behaviour is substituted for smoking. The main findings for the effect of behavioural and experiential processes were not reported, even though the TTM claims that these act as catalysts’ for change. Furthermore, although self-efficacy was associated with making a quit attempt, it did not predict the success or failure of that attempt. Decisional balance was not predictive of any behaviour change, from quitting to remaining quit or relapsing. Although a relatively small study, these findings have further questioned the validity of the TTM as a model of change, and they further reinforce the central role of self-efficacy, which is addressed fully in our discussion of a further model, the HAPA, below. Moscow 2016.