Miami for present findings of a model whereby recent past behaviour is combined with future intentions to produce four clusters’ of individuals with different attributes in terms of current behaviour and future intention to exercise. These authors find that attitudes and perceived behavioural control in relation to readiness for exercise associate more strongly with membership of these staged clusters than with membership of the five stages of change that do not consider past behaviour. Such findings, if replicated longitudinally, would suggest that studies and interventions should be assessing both intentions and current or recent behaviour. n Some authors have questioned the validity of five independent stages of readiness to change’ on the basis of data that did not succeed in allocating all participants to one specific stage e.g. Budd and Rollnick Such findings suggest that a continuous variable of readiness’ may be a better description of this construct than one considered in discrete stages Sutton n The model may not sufficiently address the social aspects of much health behaviour, such as alcohol consumption Marks et al n The model does not consider that some people may not have heard of the behaviour or the issue in question. This is likely when a rare or new illness is being considered such as in the early days of HIV/AIDS or BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or when the risk concerned is related to a new’ behaviour e. Miami 2016.