Mexico City for g. mobile phone use, or to newly identified risk factors such as human papillomavirus or HPV see in the spotlight above. This is acknowledged in a less commonly employed model, the precaution adoption process model Weinstein Weinstein and Sandman which we illustrate briefly below. The precaution adoption process model PAPM This stage model Weinstein Weinstein and Sandman was developed as a framework for understanding deliberate actions taken to reduce health risks and was intended to meet the criteria for a stage theory described by Weinstein himself see above. Weinstein’s model has seven stages, and highlights important omissions in the TTM and indeed omissions in other models Table The PAPM asserts that people pass through stages in sequences, but as with the TTM there is no time limit within which to reach the action stage. The major difference between this model and the TTM is that the PAPM has a more sophisticated consideration of the pre-action stages. n Stage a person is basically unaware’ of the threat to health posed by a certain behaviour; they have no knowledge and therefore are not aware of a risk. Mexico City 2016.