Map of wales for S. government patent policies. This reform, initiated by the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, granted universities and other private organizations the right to apply for patent protection on the results of publicly funded research. The widespread exercising of this has wrought considerable changes in the way in which research universities contribute to the national R&D effort. The resulting encroachment of patent rights on what used to be the domain of public science is only one aspect of broader changes in the U.S. patent systems, including the patents 641 drastic expansion of the definition of patentable subject matter promoted by recent judicial opinions, that have taken place since the 1980s. Map of wales 2016.