Map of Tidjikja for An invention is useful if it serves a specific purpose and is beneficial rather than harmful to society. Determining the usefulness of an invention is not always straightforward, particularly in those situations where an inventor rushes to file a patent application without conclusively demonstrating that the invention can serve the claimed purpose. Furthermore, the stated purposes for an invention may be too generic or vague for the invention to deserve patent protection. Along these lines, considerable controversy accompanied the filing of patent applications on gene fragments (Express Sequence Tags, or ESTs) whose utility could only be described as being valuable research tools for mapping complete genes. The novelty requirement quite simply restricts the award of a patent to inventions that are new, a condition that is not as easy to verify as it may appear at first. Problems with the novelty requirement arise because it is a rare circumstance when the proposed invention is known to the public in the same exact form. More typically, the novelty of an invention has to be assessed by determining how new it is relative to any similar invention previously known or demonstrated, a determination that incidentally may relate to the scope of patent protection on earlier inventions. Map of Tidjikja 2016.