Map of Monterey Tourist on While the Dutch maintained a fairly effective monopoly in the native spices, they were not able to keep competitors out of the more lucrative pepper market, and they began to introduce new crops in an effort to off- Indonesia 409 set the costs incurred in the defense and maintenance of their colony. The most successful of these was coffee, introduced to the island of Java in 1723. Despite these efforts, the VOC was beset by high costs, corruption, and poor management. By the latter part of the 18th century, its profitability was steadily declining. In 1800, the VOC was disbanded and the Dutch presence in Asia was assumed directly by a newly created government agency. In 1830, the agency instituted a radical new policy called the cultuurstelsel, or Cultivation System. Under its auspices, Dutch overseers managed agricultural output in the islands to maintain a balance between subsistence crops for the natives and profitable export crops. Map of Monterey Tourist 2016.
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