Map of italy switzerland for In fact, the public disclosure of existing inventions may serve the dual purpose of forestalling duplicative research and experiments aimed at identical discoveries, and of contributing to the body of society’s knowledge and ideas that constitutes an important factor for future inventive efforts. Each of the views about the social function of patents described above, justifies the creation of a monopoly in the use of an invention as a necessary evil that society has to tolerate and endure in order to promote the achievement of a greater good, the progress of science and the useful arts. Building upon this general framework for examining the patent system, many fascinating economic models investigate how changes in the duration and scope of patents or in the criteria for patentability would affect social welfare and the pace of technical advance. It is important to realize that the implications of these theoretical models for the design of the patent system and other policy issues depend on the validity of the general framework they adopt. Bluntly, an empirical assessment of the context of inventive activity is necessary to determine whether patents induce a significant increase in inventive activity, whether patents induce a significant increase in the disclosure of inventions, and more generally if they perform in the way the theory assumes them to do. Consider, then, the proposition that patents are necessary as an incentive for inventive activity. The premise for this proposition is that invention is a costly activity and that inventive activity will be forthcoming under the stimulus of a financial reward. Map of italy switzerland 2016.