Map of italy middle ages for Since consumers choose between total product packages rather than between their core constituents alone, it is total products that are of relevance to marketers. Today, most competition takes place at the level of augmented products; in saturated markets, it is there (and not at the level of core benefits) that product offerings can typically gain sufficient differentiation. Of course, the added benefits of augmented products must be compared to the additional costs of production and marketing in order to decide on the optimum level of product complexity for any market that will allow for maximum profitability. Product complexity may exceed cognitive constraints or may involve irrelevant components, which would suggest that products need to be broken down into modules. Modularization, as the strategy of developing simpler parts that may be assembled into a more complex whole on behalf of or by consumers, is one of the dominant options in new-product development. Dell Computer, a leading computer manufacturer in 2003, built its business model on consumer-guided product modularization. Product hierarchy. Map of italy middle ages 2016.