Map of Hvalpsund

Map of Hvalpsund on Fogel’s best-known and most controversial book (written with Stanley Engerman), Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, won the 1975 Bancroft Prize and was widely discussed in the press and on television. After demonstrating that slavery was profitable and prospering on the eve of the Civil War, it boldly argued that the material standards of living of American slaves were higher than many had thought, and that slave plantations were considerably more efficient than Northern farms and free Southern farms at turning the inputs of LAND, LABOR, and CAPITAL into output and revenue. Many critics questioned these statistical findings, and many objected that the book viewed SLAVERY from the slaveowners’ perspectivewithout condemning the institution’s immorality. Fogel took these comments to heart and his sequel, Without Consent or Contract (1989), included lengthy treatments of abolitionism and the political realignment of the 1850s, which led to the downfall of American slavery. Most economic historians now accept the conclusion that slave agriculture was more efficient, but opinions are divided on the material conditions of slaves. Fogel’s most recent path-breaking research project examines historical links among the economy, nutrition, health, and mortality. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Map of Hvalpsund 2016.

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