Map of europe by country for Prior to the onset of fighting, attempts were made to end the standoff. The British superintendent in Guangzhou, Charles Elliot, turned the merchants’ opium over to Lin, who destroyed it, ordering that trade in Guangzhou would be confined only to merchants who would not deal in it. However, in London, the opium trading firm of Jardin, Matheson and Company’s lobbying resulted in vic- Opium Wars 623 tory for commercial interests, and by 1840, a British force of 47 ships left India to confront the Chinese. Lin’s purchase of cannons for the fortification of Guangzhou came to naught, as the British bypassed this port, directly attacking Ningbo and Tianjin, pillaging coastal areas, seizing cities, and killing thousands of Chinese. With the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing and 1843 Treaty of Bogue, Great Britain gained Hong Kong, the Manchu were ordered to pay $21 million in Mexican silver, the ports of Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Ningbo and Shanghai would open with consulates, and the British would be granted most-favored-nation status. Tariffs and customs duties would be fixed only after consultation with the British, whose subjects would henceforth be tried in British consular courts in China. Pursuant to renewed fighting in 1856, China was forced to open 11 more ports, sanction the Christian missionary presence, and legalize opium, in accordance with the Treaty of Tianjin (1858), which represented British, French, Russian, and U. Map of europe by country 2016.