Map of Anlaby on The creation of a mass consciousness was an indispensable premise for the mass participation in the future revolution and, to this effect, that there should be a strong unity between the intellectuals and the population. Critical self-consciousness requires the creation of an intellectual elite as the human mass cannot become independent without organizing itself. Intellectuals must be organic to the masses: they should work out and make coherent the principles and the problems raised by the masses in their activity, thus forming a cultural and social bloc. This unity and mutual dependence is at the core of what Gramsci describes as the philosophy of practice. It does not tend to leave the simple [people] in their primitive philosophy of common sense, but rather to lead them to a higher conception of life. If it affirms the need for contact between intellectuals and simple [people] it is not in order to restrict scientific activity and preserve unity at the low level of the masses, but precisely in order to construct an intellectual-moral bloc which can make politically possible the intellectual progress of the mass and not only of small intellectual groups. Gramsci’s concept of hegemony crucially advanced Marxist theory by showing that Karl MARX was inaccurate in assuming that social development always originates form the economic structure and that the revolution could be the result of the spontaneous outburst of revolutionary consciousness among the working class. Map of Anlaby 2016.
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