Map of Almada on Cromwell, a Puritan and a member of the Long Parliament, was the head of a mounted regiment that he had formed (called the Ironsides) and a leader of the New Model Army. The dismissal purged Parliament of the more conservative Presbyterians, who wanted to establish a state church, in favor of the more radical Independents, who helped institute a policy of religious toleration for all except for Unitarians, atheists, Roman Catholics, and staunch Anglicans. The Rump Parliament tried and convicted the king of treason, beheading him on January 30, 1649. Even by 17th-century standards of violence and punishment, this was a shocking step to many people in Europe, for the members of the Rump Parliament had become regicides. The original dispute over royal power reached a conclusion that suppressed the power of kings completely: in 1649, Cromwell proclaimed the creation of an English republic, or Commonwealth, with himself as Lord Protector. The Commonwealth ruled on the basis of the Instrument of Government, the only time that England has had a written constitution. Cromwell found it difficult to rule, and the one-time defender of the rights of Parliament dispersed the remaining Rump Parliament in 1653. Map of Almada 2016.
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