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Map of Africa Political Pictures
Map of Africa
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Physical-political map of Africa
Map Africa for However, while it was initially thought that perceived or actual control acted as a moderator of demand in other words, that control buffered’ the negative effects of demands, reviews of studies using the JDC model between and van der Doef and Maes , found only minimal evidence that control moderated the negative impact of high work demands upon wellbeing, or upon burn-out Rafferty et al It appears that demand and control have independent and direct effects on stress outcomes. Critics suggested that the control component needed to be specified better and that social support, or lack of it, needed to be added to the model see Searle et al. Van der Doef and Maes for reviews. This led to an expanded model known as the job demand?control?support model JDCS which has since been tested in over a hundred studies. Increasing attention is being paid to aspects of the individual that are potentially more amenable to intervention, such as skills, self-belief or the use of social support. Addressing such factors are several studies carried out among staff in the police force in a range of countries, e.g. Map Africa 2016.