V. Sixth century. In the West, with the increasing general Christianization of countries and the largescale baptism of barbarian populations Germanization, Manila Map the pastoral problems again changed and the history of ancient education ended P. Rich, Le scuole e l’insegnamento nell’Occidente cristiano dalla fine del V secolo alla met dell’XI secolo, Rome 1984 Fr. orig. 1979 17-51. Pagan is synonymous with barbarian, excluded from the city of God and from urban civilization see Cod. Theod. and Orosius, Historiae adversus paganos, I, prol. 9; P. Chuvin – P.F. Beatrice – J.-P. Massaut – M.-E. Henneau eds., La christianisation des campagnes 1, Brussels 1996, 9-35. Catechesis was ever more rarely directed at adult baptismal candidates, and ever more frequently at already baptized Christians, who, as godparents or parents, were responsible for the Christian formation of those baptized as infants. King Clovis himself, before his baptism on Christmas Day at the end of the 5th c., was catechized by his wife Clotilde and by Bishop Remigius of Reims Greg. of Tours, Hist. franc. 2,31 and formally accepted among the competentes K. Sch¤ferdiek, Germanenmission: RAC 10, 535-536. To Jews who wanted to convert, the Council of Agde 506 imposed a catechumenate of eight months can. 34 CCL 148, 107. Jews baptized by force without ecclesiastical catechesis were given obligatory additional instruction Greg. Gt., Ep. 1,45 CCL 140, 59; R. Manselli, Gregor d. Gr.: RAC 12, 939-940.