Madrid for n Stage termed unengaged’, here a person has become aware of the risks attached to a certain behaviour but believes that the levels at which they engage in it is insufficient to pose a threat to their own health I know smoking can cause various diseases, but I don’t smoke enough for them to be a threat. This is seen as an optimistic bias’ and led to Weinstein’s development of the construct of unrealistic optimism see earlier. n Stage a consideration’ stage, akin to pre-contemplation. Individuals are deciding about acting on something ? so many things compete for our attention that a fair amount can be known about a hazard before it is considered whether to act on this knowledge. n Stage this stage acknowledges that although perceived threat and susceptibility may be high, some people may actively decide not to act’, which is different from intending to act but then not doing so. n Stage a decide to act’ stage, similar to intention/preparation. There are important differences between people with a definite stance who have decided to act and those who are undecided stage Individuals in stage may be more open to information and persuasion than those with a definite stance decided not to act as in stage or deciding to act as in stage . Madrid 2016.

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