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From this perspective comes the connection between pneumatology and ecclesiology, which brings out the theology of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit: the dove lives not only in the hearts of each of the faithful, but also in the church as a community of believers, wanted and founded by Christ. For this reason the church is identified with the dove columba autem ecclesia est, since it manifests true peace. In this line of thought St. Paulinus of Nola Ep. ad Severum 32, 10, explaining the Trinity in the light of the episode of Jesus’ baptism, highlights the identification of the Holy Spirit with the dove. In the same sense Maximus of Turin writes: As then, the flood over, the dove brought to the ark of Noah the sign of peace, so, after the judgment, Christ also will bring to the church of Peter the joy of peace, since he is the dove or peace Serm. 49, 3. Against this background, the influence of this double symbolic meaning on Christian archaeology is not surprising. The symbolism of the dove bringing the olive branch refers to the messenger of heavenly peace, who manifests himself with gentleness, innocence and simplicity of heart. From the 3rd c. on, Christian art fixed the dove as the favorite image for indicating the presence of the Holy Spirit in the faithful departed. Madrid Metro Map Thus we have in funerary monuments of every kind, esp. in the catacombs of St. Callistus in the 4th c., the depiction of the dove bearing an olive branch in its mouth or feet, signifying the peace of those who rest in the Lord. Besides these funerary depictions, also notable in the early church is the use of a vase in the form of a dove to preserve the Eucharist columba eucharistica; Tert., Liber adv. Valentinianos 3.

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