Limburg City for They maintain that the realm of ideas (thought and understanding) constitutes the true engine of history. The world we construct around us is, ultimately, a reflection of our minds. Marx, in contrast, was a materialist. He holds that idealism actually inverts reality: ideas are the effect, not the cause, of the material conditions in which we live. Marx argues that human beings are distinguished from other animals not because they have ideas but because they produce their own means of subsistence by way of organized labor.75 In turn, the way people collectively produce their means of subsistence determines the ideas they have. As Marx famously states, life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life. Limburg City 2016.