Las Vegas for The health action process approach HAPA The HAPA is a model that has really taken on board the issue of stages and attempts to fill the intention?behaviour gap’, crucially by highlighting the role of self-efficacy and action plans Schwarzer The HAPA model was developed to apply to all health-compromising and health-enhancing behaviour. It is particularly influential because it suggests that the adoption, initiation and maintenance of health behaviour must be explicitly viewed as a process that consists of at least a pre-intentional motivation phase and a post-intentional volition phase Figure Schwarzer further divides self-regulatory processes into sequences of planning, initiation, maintenance, relapse management and disengagement; however, we focus here on the first three of these as these are where the model has been best tested. n Motivation phase As we have seen in earlier models such as the TPB, individuals form an intention to either adopt a precautionary measure e.g. use a condom during sexual intercourse or change risk behaviour e.g. stop smoking as a result of various attitudes, cognitions and social factors. Las Vegas 2016.