Komarno Map

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Map data cc-by-sa OpenStreetMap.contributors

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komarno map

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Komarno Map for g. rapid and deeper breathing, increased heart rate, sweating or shaking result not just from activation of the anterior?pituitary? adrenal cortex system as Selye thought but also from increased activity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system ANS. The ANS can be divided into two connected systems ? the sympathetic nervous system SNS and the parasympathetic nervous system PNS ? which exist in a state of dynamic but antagonistic tension’ Rice The SNS is involved in arousal and expenditure of energy such as during a fight?flight’ response, whereas the PNS is involved in reducing arousal and in restoring and conserving the body’s energy stores such as during rest see Chapter Both systems control the actions of many internal organs, such as the heart and skeletal muscles, with their activity initially mediated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine links the neurons of the spinal synapse to the brainstem, where the nerves then act on their target organs. Mediation in the sympathetic branch is provided by noradrenaline adrenergic fibres and, to a lesser degree, adrenaline; whereas in the parasympathetic branch, acetylcholine cholinergic fibres makes this final link. The stress response is maintained following short-lived sympathetic arousal by neuroendocrine responses resulting from activation of the sympathetic?adrenomedullary system SAM and release of the catecholamines adrenaline epinephrine and noradrenaline norepinephrine, those in brackets being the US terms, from the adrenal glands. This activation of the adrenal medullary system, in conjunction with the more crucial action of the hypothalamus in activating the pituitary?adrenal cortex the hypothalamic? pituitary?adrenocortical HPA system, enables our bodily organs to alter their usual function to facilitate an adaptive stress response even in situations of prolonged stress. Komarno Map 2016.

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