Kildare City for Chapter 4, Modernity and Postmodernity, approaches postmodern understandings of politics by way of their modern predecessors. The chapter begins with a historical analysis of modernism and proceeds with an overview of structuralist, poststructuralist, and postmodern thought. It subsequently juxtaposes the modern concern with governmental regulation of social interaction and allocation of scarce resources to the postmodern concern with the social construction of individual and collective identities. The chapter highlights the political nature of postmodern theory by contrasting it to modern behaviorism. Chapter 5, Identity and Difference, examines various ways in which individual and collective identities are forged and contested. It investigates the political significance of racial, religious, gender, and economic identities. In each case, the text prompts the reader to explore whether, how, and to what extent his or her own identity is a social construct and how identities thus constructed respond and relate to difference. Kildare City 2016.