Kazakhstan Metro Map

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Finally, in thinking about the origin, condemnation and esp. the present activity of the devil and demons, Kazakhstan Metro Map the Fathers could not avoid considering the question of their nature RAC 9,728-734. In the elaboration of their demonology, as with their angelology, we see a gradual spiritualization. Like the angels, demons were soon presented as spiritual beings pneu,mata – spiritus, with negative attributes.

According to Tertullian, however, though not having flesh, they are not immaterial: rather, they are of a very fine substance Adv. Marc. II,8,2; Carn. 6,9, which no longer possesses the dignity of that of the angels Latt., Instit. II,14, 1. This opinion endured among the Latins until Augustine Gen. lit. III, 10,14f., who, while attributing to demons an airy corporeity, hesitated to explain demonic apparitions by means of this corporeity Trin. III, 1,5; rather, he stressed that demons do not accept material sacrifices, asking instead for the honors and submission due to God Civ. Dei X, 19; cf. RAC 9,743. Augustine thus prepared a completely spiritual understanding of the demonic nature, though in fact he was not much interested in such questions Ench. 15,59.

The spiritualization went much further, however, among the Greeks RAC 9,703f., who, assuming the angelic origin of demons, stressed their immateriality. In the 4th c. they explicitly denied that demons had a body that needed feeding. As with angelic corporeity, that of demons was understood to be something relative, i.e., more subtle than the human body; nevertheless, the nature of demons was not equated with that of angels. While Origen had admitted a twofold difference between angels and demons, both in nature and character proai,resij; Orig., C. Cels. III, 37, later one sees a difference only in character ps.-Athan., Quaest. ad Ant. 7: PG 28, 604A. The visibility and mobility of demons was determined in a way consistent with the opinion of a more or less fine corporeity: they were normally invisible, but could make themselves seen by means of their own body or that of another.

They are also very DEMOPHILUS of Constantinople fast, moving on wings throughout the whole earth. Because of their mobility, but also because of their wider experience, they exceed human beings in knowledge, more easily guessing even thoughts Aug., Div. daem. 3,7; 5,9. Their knowledge of the mysteries of salvation, however, is very small: in particular, they have not understood the profound significance of the Lord’s incarnation and cross. In conclusion, it can be said that the existence and activity of the devil and demons played a very important role not only in the popular beliefs and devotions of the early church see also RAC 9,761- 797, but also in the theology of the Fathers. Significantly conditioned by the cosmological and anthropological vision of the times, patristic demonology presents many difficulties for the modern mentality. An understanding of it should be sought, however, not just to enter into the mentality of the early Christian authors, but also to be able to deduce from it that lesson on the origin and gravity of evil without which we cannot completely appreciate the saving work of Jesus Christ, the central point of Christian faith.

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