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In the 4th c. the practice arose of reading the names of those the Mass was being offered for during the canon. The deacon read the names diptychs aloud, and the priest then continued with quorum tibi fides cognita est . Jerome criticized this practice in In Ezech. 6, 18: Publiceque diaconus in Ecclesiis recitet offerentium nomina: tantum offert illa, tantum ille pollicitus est, placentque sibi ad plausum populi, torquente eos conscientia The deacon in the churches publicly recites the names which are presented: all those offered are presented, and they seek approval for themselves and bend their consciences to the applause of the people PL 25, 175 and In Hierem. 2, 108: At nunc publice recitantur offerentium nomina et redemptio peccatorum mutatur in laudem: nec meminerunt viduae illius in evangelio, quae in gazophylacium duo aera mittendo omnium divitum vicit donaria But now the names of those offered are publicly recited, and the forgiveness of sins exchanged for praise; but they do not remember the widow in the gospel who placed her two mites into the treasury triumphing over all the donations of the rich PL 24, 784. Pope Innocent I, however, approved the practice and ordered the bishop of Gubbio, who followed the custom of reading the diptychs before the canon, to observe the Roman practice inter sacra mysteria Ep. 25: PL 20, 553. The addition of the names of the saints in the Communicantes was done by Pope Vigilius. The pope speaks in Ep. Katowice Metro Map 2, cited above PL 69, 18, of special capitula for Easter, Ascension, Pentecost and Epiphany: those for Christmas, Epiphany and Ascension nonetheless seem of Leonine origin. The memory of the Blessed Virgin, introduced into Eastern anaphorae after the Council of Ephesus, was in the Roman Canon from the time of Pope Gelasius. The Quam oblationem presents a problem. Ambrose ends it with the words quod est figura Corporis et Sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi De Sacr. IV, 21: CSEL 73, 55, 2, an expression which recalls the ancient imago and similitudo used by Gelasius in his letter to Eutyches Tract. III, De duabus naturis in Christo, 14: Thiel I, 451. The Gregorian text leaves out the term figura and introduces the causative particle ut, indicating in this way the independence of the epiclesis from the account of institution. In the Ambrosian text, however, the quod est figura is necessary for entering into the account of the institution, which according to Ambrose is properly consecratory: Consecratio igitur quibus verbis est et cuius sermonibus? Domini Iesu. Nam reliqua omnia, quae dicuntur in superioribus, a sacerdote dicuntur Ubi venitur, ut conficiatur venerabile sacramentum, iam non suis sermonibus utitur sacerdos, sed utitur sermonibus Christi. Ergo sermo Christi hoc conficit sacramentum With whose words and sayings, therefore, is the consecration given? Those of our Lord Jesus. For all of the other words which are spoken previously are said by the priest . When we arrive at the preparation of the venerable sacrament, the priest no longer uses his own words; rather he uses the words of Christ. Therefore the word of Christ accomplishes this sacrament De Sacram. IV, 4,14: CSEL 73, 52, 10-16; the question of the epiclesis is treated under its own entry.

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