Jude Thaddaeus

ADDAI or Addaeus. Supposed to have been one of the 72 disciples of the Lord. According to a Syriac tradition, Addai was sent by Jude Thaddaeus or Thomas to evangelize the city of Edessa. Native of Paneas Caesarea Philippi.

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Jude Thaddaeus

For some scholars, following the Greek and Latin tradition, Addai or Addaeus could indicate the apostle Jude Thaddaeus himself, one of the Twelve, supposed to have been sent as a missionary to Edessa at the request of Jesus, who had received a letter from king Abgar V.The crux of the story, certainly apocryphal, is in the narration of Eusebius HE I, 13, who reports the correspondence between Jesus and king Abgar V; both the apocryphal Acts of Thaddaeus and the Doctrine of Addai or Addaeus are drawn from Eusebius's account. The protagonist of the narration is Addai or Thaddaeus according to Eusebius, often identified with the apostle Jude Thomas.

The Doctrine of Addai came to light thanks to the publication of a Syriac manuscript 1864 Cureton and 1876 Philips similar to the one described by Eusebius, whose author is supposed to have been Labubna, son of Sennak. Differences with the Eusebian narration, which includes only the correspondence and some of the apostle's deeds, are obvious: the Lord does not respond to the letter in writing but orally, and Annanias, Abgar's messenger, is considered the actual author of the text, and brings with him a self-portrait of Jesus. The missionary sent was not Thaddaeus but Addai.

The second part of the Doctrine treats of Addai the missionary or Addai, one of the 72 at Edessa: consecration of priests, baptisms, miracles, speeches, establishing Christian worship, building churches, etc. Also included is the story of the discovery of the true cross by Protonice, mother of the emperor Claudius a scene that we find in the history of St. Helena, whose presence serves to chastise the Jews for putting Christ to death.

The account ends with the death of Addai and his succession: his disciple Aggai is killed by the son of Abgar, who remained an unbeliever; succeeding him was Palut, ordained by Serapion of Antioch, noteworthy in that it connects the church of Edessa with that of Rome. The text also reports that Serapion was ordained by Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome; the Doctrine in this way intends to underscore the legitimate succession of the church of Edessa. The document was certainly written after 384, i.e. after the Pilgrimage of Egeria, which reports the existence of the letters but not of the icon of the Lord thus late 4th to early 5th c.

This notwithstanding, many scholars agree in affirming the antiquity of the tradition of the evangelization of Edessa, back even to apostolic times; others date it late 2nd c.The icon is important in the Byzantine tradition of the Doctrine: the transfer of the image of Edessa is still celebrated on 16 August. The Doctrine has reached us in Syriac, Armenian, Greek, Latin, Slavic, Coptic and Arabic.

The Acts of Thaddaeus one of the Twelve, mentioned above, are a Greek elaboration of the Doctrine, with a different organization of the material. Addai is commemorated by the Syriac church, and even today Jude Thaddaeus is honored on 14 May and 18 October. The Armenians also preserve Addai's memory, claiming that he was martyred by Sanatruk, Abgar's nephew.

Another source in the Christian tradition referring to the name of Addai is the eucharistic anaphora of the apostles Addai and Mari. One of the three Syro-Eastern anaphorae of the Chaldean church, it is also used by Nestorians and Malabarese. Composed in Syriac, it stands out among this type of liturgical document because it lacks the account of the institution, unique among anaphorae; it is also the oldest eucharistic prayer in use among the Eastern churches.

According to some scholars it can be dated to the 3rd c.and is closely related to the anaphora of St. Peter the Apostle III, also from this period; the original form is nonetheless difficult to determine because the Syriac manuscripts that have reached us are very late.

It is also distingushed by the pronounced presence of traces of the Hebrew liturgy; it is in fact modeled on some easily identifiable Jewish blessings. Doctrine of Addai: CANT, n.89; BHO 9,24, 1141; W.

Cureton, Ancient Syriac Documents Relative to the Earliest Establishment of Christianity in Edessa and the Neighbouring Countries, from the Year After our Lord's Ascension to the Beginning of the Fourth Century, London 1864; G.Philips, The Doctrine of Addai the Apostle, Now First Edited in a Complete Form in the Original Syriac with an English Translation and Notes, London 1876; W.Bauer, Rechtgl¤ubigkeit und Ketzerei im ¤lt.

Christentum, T¼bingen 1934, 6-48; M.Erbetta, Gli Apocrifi del NT, Casale Monferrato 1975, 79-82; J.Tixeront, Les origines de l'‰glise d'Edesse et la lgende d'Abgar, Paris 1988; A.

Desreumaux, Histoire du roi Abgar et de Jsus, Turnhout 1993; A.Desreumaux, Les titres des oevres apocryphes chr¨tiennes et leurs corpus: le cas de la doctrine d'Addai syriaque, in La formation des canons scripturaires, Paris 1993; L.Moraldi, Gli Apocrifi del NT, Casale Monferrato 1994, 719-722; J.

Gonzlez, La leyenda del Rey Abgar y Jesºs, or­genes del Cristianismo en Edesa, Madrid 1995; C.and F.Jullien, Les Actes de Mar Mari.

L'ap´tre de la Msopotamie, Turnhout 2001. The Acts of Thaddaeus: CANT, n.229; BHG 1702-1703; C.

Tischendorf, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, Leipzig 1851, 261- 265; R.A. Lipsius, Acta Apostolorum Apocryphorum I., Leipzig 1891 Hildesheim 273-283; M.Erbetta, Gli Apocrifi del NT, Casale Monferrato 1975, II, 575-578; W.

Schneemelcher, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen II, T¼bingen 1989, 436-437. Liturgy: Syriac text and Latin version Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Church ed. Anaphora prima nimirum Anaphora beatorum Apostolorum Mar Addau et Mar Mari, Doctorum Orientis,  in Liturgia Siro Malabarese, Rome 1955; W.Macomber, The Oldest Known Text of the Anaphora of the Apostles Addai and Mari: OCP 32 1966 335-371; Lat.

Tr. In B.Botte: OCP 15 1949 261-263; Fr.

Tr. In B.Botte: OrSyr 10 1965 91-93; A.

Gelston, The Eucharistic Prayer of Addai and Mari, Oxford 1992, 48-63; Ital.tr. In Segno di Unit, Magnano 1996, 302-306.
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Jude Thaddaeus

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