IV. Liturgy orthodox

IV. Liturgy orthodox From the 13th c. it merged with the Byzantine rite. 1. From origins to the 5th c. In apostolic times the Christian community of Antioch celebrated the liturgy in Greek Acts 9 11; Letter of Ignatius, which passed to Jerusalem and was there translated into Aramaic. Even modified, it inspired other Eastern rites. As Antioch’s influence increased 150 suffragan bishops at Nicaea, 325, its liturgy, not oral but textually fixed, spread to the other churches patriarchate of Antioch. The homilies of John Chrysostom at Antioch 386 397 and Theodore of Mopsuestia d. 428 prove that this liturgy had taken form by the end of the 4th c. Brightmann; F. Van de Paverd, Zur Geschichte der Messliturgie in Antiocheia OCA 187, Rome 1970, 468-536. The modern-day liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, however, was not composed by him; work still needs to be done on its origins. Antiochene influences entered the Byzantine liturgy through Chrysostom, who lived at Antioch before going to Constantinople. Mark is said to have introduced the Antiochene rite into Egypt = Alexandrian rite. Theodoret of Cyrrhus treats of the divine office Hist. rel., PG 82, 1283-1496. Diodore of Tarsus and Flavian, as deacons, introduced antiphonal chant. Besides the morning and evening synaxis, the Apostolic Constitutions 4th c., book VIII, present the formulary of the Mass: readings from the OT, from the epistles, from the gospel and a homily by the bishop; departure of the catechumens and public penitents; prayer of the faithful, kiss of peace and bishop’s salutation, washing of hands, offertory, eucharistic prayer, preface and sanctus, account of the eucharistic institution, anamnesis, epiclesis; prayer for the church, for the living and the dead, prayers of preparation for communion, sancta sanctis, Communion and thanksgiving after Communion; bishop’s final blessing. From Jerusalem see A. Renoux ed., Le codex armnien Jerusalem 121.I. Introduction aux origines de la liturgie hierosolymitaine. Lumi¨res nouvelles, Turnhout 1969, to which the Antiochene liturgy owes much, the liturgy of St. James spread to the patriarchate of Antioch, later to be included in the Byzantine rite. 2. From 451, Council of Chalcedon, to the 7th c. With the separation of the monophysites a dissident patriarchate was set up at Antioch, but monophysites and Syrian Catholics both used the Antiochene rite. With the ecclesiastical supremacy of Constantinople in the East, the Byzantine rite came to be used more; the Antiochene was used only by the Jacobites. Then arose the Melkite rite, more closely related with that of the Byzantine Empire, in which Romanus Melodus 6th c. had great success with his kontakia, which imitated the Syriac poetry of St. Ephrem and the rhythmical Greek homilies; these supplemented or replaced the homily. The so-called Syro-Occidental rite = Antiochene rite is opposed to the Syro-Eastern rite, which made itself independent of Antioch and coincides with the regions of Mesopotamia and Chaldea. Those who passed from Nestorianism to orthodoxy are called Chaldeans. The Indian Malankar rite derived from the SyroOccidental; the Malabar rite is of Syro-Eastern origin. Both are a result of evangelization from Antioch. The language changed from Greek to Syriac 4th-5th c., which flourished again in the 10th-15th c. 3. Feasts of the liturgical year. Easter was preceded by Lent, which differed in the various local churches but became more uniform in the 4th c. At Antioch it was for eight weeks of five days. John Chrysostom informs us about the 4th-c. catechumenate see Huit Catch¨ses baptismales indites, ed. A. Wenger, SC 50. Information on baptism comes to us from the Didascalia Apostolorum see V. Saxer, Les rites de l’initiation chrtienne du IIe in Settimane di Studio  XXXIII, Spoleto 1987 repr. 1982, 217-218; see O. Pasquato, CatecumenatoDiscepolato, in DPAC I. Holy Week was crowned by the Sacred Triduum Apos. Con. V, 18. The Easter cycle closed with the feast of Pentecost 50 days later. In the 4th c. were added the feasts of Christmas origin uncertain and Epiphany Eastern origin J. Leclercq, DACL V, 197. Also, Sunday replaced the Jewish Sabbath. 4. Divine office. The day was punctuated by hours of prayer in church: prayer before the cock’s crow, matins, terce, sext, none, evening and night prayers. Monks and clerics were obliged to keep them. We have abundant information for the 4th c. Apos. Con. 1,2,59; ed. Funk, 171-173; ibid., VIII, 34,1-7; op. cit., 541; Counc. Laod., can. 1,8; ed. Johannou, 1,2,137, Rome 1963; Hfl-Lecl, XII2, 1965-1966. Laypeople were also present Chrys., De Anna Sermo 4,5: PG 54, 668; but one could pray anywhere if they were unable to go to a church during the day ibid., 4,5: PG 54, 667. At the start of the day everyone had to praise God in church: Ps 62 was sung Chrys., In ps. 140,1: PG 55, 427. In the evening all returned to the church to ask pardon: Ps 140 and other suitable psalms were sung ibid.: PG 55, 427. Common propitiatory prayers were recited. 5. Cult of the martyrs. This underwent intensive development in the 4th c., favored by numerous cemeteries: the cemetery of the laity? on the Daphne road, with the supposed relics of St. Ignatius Jerome, De vir. ill. 16: PL 23, 635, St. Babylas prior to his translation to Daphne, Domnina, Berenice and Prosdoce, Drosis, Juventinus and Maximinus. The celebration began with a nocturnal vigil with psalms, prayers and biblical readings; it included a pangeyric and celebration of the Eucharist. F.X. Funk, Didascalia et Const. Apostolorum, Paderborn 1905; F.E. Brightmann, Liturgies Eastern and Western, Oxford 1896, Appendix C.: The liturgy of Antioch from the writings of J. Chrysostom, 470-481; F. Cabrol, Fªtes Chrtiennes Les: DACL V1, 1403-1452; A.A. King, The Rites of Eastern Christendom, 2 vols., London 1950; M.H. Sheperd Jr., The Formation and Influence of the Antiochene Liturgy: DOP 15 1961 25-44; E.E. Finn, Antiochene Rite, Liturgy of: CE I, 629; P. Rentinck, La cura pastorale, 17-153 iniziazione cristiana; liturgia e culto; J.F. Baldovin, The Urban Character of Christian Worship: The Origins: Development and Meaning of Stational Liturgy OCA 228, Rome 1987; A. Olivar, La predicaci³n cristiana antigua, Barcelona 1991; Th.J. Talley, Origins of the Liturgical Year, Collegeville, 1991 It. tr. 1991; P. Bradshaw, The Search for the Origins of Christian Worship: Sources and Methods for the Study of Early Liturgy, London 1992; J.-P. Cattenoz, Le baptªme myst¨re nuptial. Thologie de Saint Jean Chrysostome, Venasque 1993; P. Beno®t – Ch. Munier, Le Baptªme dans l’‰glise ancienne. Zappella, Milan 1998; M.-Y. Perrin, La diffusione delle reliquie: Storia del Cristianesimo, 2, 566-568; P. Allen, Severus of Antioch and Pastoral Care: SP 35, Louvain 2001, 353-368; Id., Severus of Antioch as a Source for Lay Piety in Late Antiquity, in Historiam Perscrutari. Miscellanea di studi offerti al prof. Ottorino Pasquato, Rome 2002, 711-721; I. O±atibia, Mens concordet voci en la catequesis de san Juan Cris³stomo, ibid., 815- 827; M.A. Schatkin, Advocate of Biblical Literacy, ibid., 829-838.Liturgy with Patriarch St. Nicholas Brooklyn, NY 2012 Antiochian … holidaymapq

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IV. Liturgy orthodox


IV. Liturgy orthodox

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IV. Liturgy orthodox

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IV. Liturgy orthodox

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