Istanbul for g. I intend to stop smoking to become healthier. Schwarzer also proposes phasespecific self-efficacy beliefs, with self-efficacy in the motivational stage being referred to as task/pre-action self-efficacy’ e.g. I can succeed in eating a healthy diet even if I have to change my lifestyle a bit’. At this stage, it is important for an individual to imagine successful outcomes and be confident in their ability to achieve them. n Volition phase Once an intention has been formed, the HAPA proposes that in order to turn intention into action, planning has to take place. Istanbul 2016.

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