II. Manuscripts. 1. The Cathach of St. Columba. This is the most ancient Irish manuscript, written probably in Ireland in the first part of the 7th c. It cannot be much later than the death of the saint, in ca. 597. The importance of the Cathach is that it shows the degree of decoration of manuscripts before close links were developed with the continent and before the development of the scriptoriums of Northumbria. Israel Subway Map 2. The Evangeliarium of St. Augustine. Augustine disembarked in Kent in 597. He and his companions brought books with them, and other books were sent from Rome with those who, like St. Paulinus, came in the following years. One of these, believed to belong to St. Augustine and preserved as a relic at Canterbury in the Middle Ages, an illuminated copy of the four gospels, is still preserved at Corpus Christi College of Cambridge.
3. The Book of Durrow. Dated around 675, the Book of Durrow is the first manuscript decorated in an elaborate way; but the writing, the rigor of the ornamentation and some other details show its adherence to a tradition already elaborated by the Irish scribes. Preserved for a long time in the Monastery of St. Columba at Durrow, County Offaly, it was written in Northumbria.
4. The Codex Amiatinus. We have a small group of manuscripts of which the most important, aside from the Lindisfarne Gospels, are the Codex Amiatinus and the Evangeliarium of Echternach, produced around 700 in the insular tradition of the Book of Durrow. The Codex Amiatinus, preserved at Florence, was one of the three copies of the gospels executed on the order of Ceolfrith d. 716, first abbot of Jarrow, and was modeled on one of those brought from Italy by Benedict Biscop. Entirely Italianate in the characters and the ornamentation, the text is written in insular uncial capitals, which is found only in the group of manuscripts from Wearmouth-Jarrow. The model for the Amiatinus was the Codex Grandior, one of the Bibles copied in Italy in the Vivarium of Cassiodorus in Calabria, preceded by a portrait of Esdra, which was used as a model for a portrait of an evangelist in the Codex Amiatinus.
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