Iscehisar for . . But if you contribute to the world’s culture, if you have a good idea, compose a tune, invent a sparking plug, write a poem, it may live on, intact, long after your genes have dissolved in the common pool. Socrates may or may not have a gene or two alive in the world today . . . but who cares? The meme-complexes of Socrates . Iscehisar 2016.

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In Travel, we described attachment as an enduring tie that binds the child to the parent, who is a source of security for the child. We also saw that secure attachments promote positive behaviors. How do parents establish such bonds? The Process of Attachment An analysis of sixty-six studies on infants attachments to mothers as mothers were the focus of most studies found four important contributors to secure attachment in the first year: Sensitivity ability to perceive the infant’s signals accurately and respond appropriately and promptly to the child’s needs Mutuality positive harmony and mutuality in relationship Synchronicity coordinated social interactions Positive attitude emotional expressiveness, acceptance, and delight in the child Mothers sensitive, responsive caregiving in infancy not only promotes secure attachment but also reduces resting levels of stress hormones that, in turn, promote greater attention, self-regulation, and cognitive competence at age two. In contrast, fathers negative parenting of their six-month-old infants triggers higher levels of stress hormones when babies are aroused and higher resting levels of stress hormones at age two. Mothers negative, harsh parenting in infancy is related to these children’s self-descriptions of inattentive and aggressive when they are young adults.

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