India Subway Map

India Subway Map on From the 16th century to the mid-18th century, there was direct appropriation of resources. This precursor stage to the Industrial Revolution was characterized by the coercive extraction of resources from Asia, Africa, and South America on the basis of organized, though selective, use of military force and administrative measures. As Ernest Mandel argues, the appropriation of resources in this period by Europe from the countries of the East was the outcome of values stolen, plundered, seized by tricks, pressure or violence, from the overseas peoples with whom the Western world had made contact. In this pre-industrialization phase, trade consisted of imports into Europe of luxury goods from the east such as silk, cotton and fabrics, spices, and jewelry and precious stones. Trade in this period was neither conducted within free markets nor were norms of fairness in fashion at the time. The resources extracted from the countries of the East during this period, were not only substantial, but may have played an important direct or indirect role in the process of investment and economic growth in Europe. According to a conservative estimate by a senior colonial official, Sir Percival Griffiths, 100 to 150 million was plundered from INDIA alone during the period 17501800. India Subway Map 2016.

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