In 423 Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia, called a council in Cilicia to condemn Julian of Eclanum and Pelagianism: which is surprising, since Julian had been Theodore’s guest when he wrote his eight books against Augustine. Moreover, Theodore too had always held that death and the other consequences of original sin were proper to the state in which God had created human beings. Mansi IV, 474; Hfl-Lecl II, 1, 214; Palazzini 1, 285. C. Nardi III. Archaeology. Cilicia, now in Turkey, bordered Isauria and was divided in two parts. St. Paul’s city of Tarsus was capital of Cilicia Prima. It now has no Christian antiquities, only the memory of the apostle in a Roman gate bearing his name.
Excavations at nearby Küzlü Kule have uncovered Hellenistic and Roman buildings with 4th-c. Roman tomb inscriptions with crosses Goldman, Excavations, 384f.. Remains of five churches 5th-6th c. have been found at Korycos, now Narli Kuyu, with a number of inscriptions Guyer – Herzfeld, Mon. Asiae Min. ant., II, 94-154; Keil – Wilhelm, Mon. Asiae Min. ant., III, 120; Budde, Mosaiken, II. In Cilicia Secunda churches have been found at Anazarbus, now Anawarza, with mosaic floors; at Hierapolis, at Castabala, now Budrum, and at Flavias, now Kars el Bazar Budde, Mosaiken, II. Remains of Christian basilicas are in two towns in the Taurus mountains: Mazilik and Akdam Edwards.
Better results have been attained at Mopsuestia, now Misis: mosaic floors of the church, with Noah’s ark and many animals, and scenes of Samson’s life with didactic inscriptions. The martyrium of Sts. Taracus, Probus and Andronicus is thought to have been found. Near Mardin, at Deir Za‘faran, are remains of a monastic complex with graves; at Karylos, remains of churches outside the walls, surrounded by sarcophagi. Many churches of Cilicia had an atrium, providing an enclosure for churches that could not be locked.