How To Map for The first involves a classical conditioned response, which has been implicated in immune and respiratory responses. A second process, particularly relevant to pain, involves our expectations of pain or pain relief Price et al We experience a reduction in pain because we expect a reduction in pain. The logic of this theory and consistent with explanations of pain experiences described earlier in the chapter, is that if we can somehow change expectations about the efficacy or otherwise of a particular placebo treatment, then the effectiveness of that placebo treatment will also vary. In one of the few studies to attempt this, Fedele et al. found that repeated use of a placebo over several menstrual cycles in women suffering from painful periods resulted in a lowering of the placebo’s success in controlling pain. Although they did not directly measure the beliefs and expectations of these women, such a finding is consistent with a gradual change of expectations in the effectiveness of the treatment leading to a reduction in placebo response. Of course, just as positive expectations can lead to a reduction in pain, negative expectations can lead to increases in pain ? the nocebo response. How To Map 2016.