Havza for Eventually, these molecules combined to form the genes of basic organisms capable of reproduction. The diversity and sophistication of these primitive forms of life slowly increased, with each particular species bearing and reproducing its own unique pool of genes. The transmission of memes, in contrast, only began millions of years ago, when tribes of primitive hominids began to produce and pass along expressions, information, skills, rules, and rituals by way of gestures and speech. The conglomerations of memes that get passed along through cultural reproduction may be understood as symbol pools that correspond to the gene pools passed along through biological reproduction. Gene pools are programs for transforming energy and matter into organic life. Likewise, symbol pools may be understood as programs for transforming energy and matter into specific sorts of cultural life.22 Today we know a good deal about the chemistry that allows the genetic conversion of matter and energy into organic life. Havza 2016.